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J Periodontal Res. 2006 Apr;41(2):140-7.

Recombinant human growth/differentiation factor-5 (rhGDF-5) induced bone formation in murine calvariae.

By: Yoshimoto T, Yamamoto M, Kadomatsu H, Sakoda K, Yonamine Y, Izumi Y.

OBJECTIVES:

Growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, shows a close structural relationship to bone morphogenetic proteins and plays crucial roles in skeletal morphogenesis. Recombinant human (rh) GDF-5 was reported as a suitable factor for enhancing healing in bone defect and inducing ectopic bone formation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of bone formation induced by rhGDF-5 in murine calvariae by radiological, histological and immunohistochemical methods. Cell proliferation was also examined in vitro.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Cells including primary osteoblasts, periosteum cells and connective tissue fibroblasts were isolated enzymatically from neonatal murine calvariae or head skin. In the presence or absence of rhGDF-5, cell proliferation was estimated by tetrazolium reduction assay. To examine the mechanism of osteoinduction, rhGDF-5/atelocollagen (AC) composite or 0.01 N HCl/AC composite were injected into murine calvariae subcutaneously. Tissue was examined radiologically, histologically and immunohistochemically.

RESULTS:

In the presence of rhGDF-5, proliferation of primary osteoblasts, periosteum cells, and connective tissue fibroblasts was increased significantly in culture. Immunohistochemical observations showed cells at the site injected with rhGDF-5/AC displayed immunoreactivity for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Newly formed bone- and cartilage-like tissue contained chondrocyte osteocyte and osteoclastic cells, and were immunoreactive for both type I and II collagen.

CONCLUSION:

Exposure to GDF-5 promotes proliferation and differentiation of calvarial cells, which give rise to ectopic bone formation.


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